5G and Healthcare...
Author: Prof K Ganapathy
Director Apollo Telemedicine Networking Foundation, Apollo Tele Health Services | Distinguished Visiting Professor IIT Kanpur | Distinguished Professor The Tamilnadu Dr MGR Medical University | Emeritus Professor National Academy of Medical Sciences
5G is the fifth generation of wireless communication technology, promising faster data transfer speeds, lower latency (round trip latency >10 milliseconds), increased network capacity (1 million devices per sq km), 99.999% network reliability and battery life of up to 10 years for IoT devices. There is considerable hype in the media that deployment of 5G will revolutionize healthcare by enabling new medical applications and improving existing ones. Using Edge computing, 5G Data can be processed closer to where it is generated. IoMT (Internet of Medical Things) devices generate huge amounts of data. Cloud computing can provide the necessary infrastructure to process and analyze this data. Faster transmission of data will enable more efficient storage in the cloud. Accessing more bandwidth and computing resources, and providing infrastructure to enable scalability will now be less problematic.
No doubt clarity of images transmitted will be better and the immersive experience in video conferencing will be an all-time high. Mammograms, CT, MRI, and ultrasound images generate large amounts of data. High-speed transfer and processing will save a few minutes. Onboard cameras, camera-based Headgear, and ‘Body Cams’ for paramedics can transmit patient data to hospitals in real-time using ultra-fast and low-latency 5G connected ambulances, with medical equipment, patient monitoring applications and telemetry devices that ensure excellent pre-hospital management. 5G can facilitate real-time control of medical robots, enabling precise and safe interventions in performing complex procedures. 5G enables faster and more efficient data transfer, facilitating clinical trials and drug development, as these require the collection of large amounts of data from multiple sources.
The media loves dramatising “telesurgery” – the use of 5G in enabling remote surgical procedures. The world’s first remote brain surgery using 5G was conducted in March 2019. Deep Brain Stimulation was performed for a Parkinsonian patient, with the surgeon 3000 km away. In India there have been sporadic anecdotal reports of the use of 5G in remote interventional procedures, The sceptic would wonder why the patient could not go to where the surgeon is located!!! In May 2021, the Thoracic Surgery Education Group enabled 200 thoracic surgeons to access a virtual environment (VE) wearing a head-mounted display (HMD). Discussions in real-time occurred while observing surgery in a VE. Moving the mouse, every corner of the Operation Theatre (OT) was visible to surgeons from different continents. 3D glasses enabled viewing of High Resolution 3D images. Pathologists could display microscopic images on the large screen of the OT and the surgeon could listen to pathologic findings in real-time & share opinions. I believe that 5G assisted telementoring and telemonitoring is more important, doable and necessary than the media hyped “telesurgery”.
The healthcare “industry” is generally more conservative in jumping on to the bandwagon, in deploying future-ready technology. Interoperability, portability, stakeholder customization, human factors (skills, resistance, distrust, cyber-attacks), legislation and regulations need to be factored in. The adoption of any new technology to a large extent depends on the return on investment. Making a product cost effective in turn depends on scalability and mass deployment.
Now that the sales pitch is over, as an old fashioned clinician belonging to the BC era, let me ask my favourite question, dreaded by multinational corporations worldwide - SO WHAT? In Utopia, a clinician, whose primary reason for existence is to promote good health, postpone illness, reverse, reduce symptoms and signs, and significantly improve health outcome – needs the results of a good, well designed, prospective study where the primary question is “Did 5G really make a difference?”
Such a study can be done in India – with global ramifications. The real world is different. If we do not use 5G we are in the Jurassic Park!! Time alone will tell if 5G needs to be an integral part of a hospital’s armamentarium.
Article first published in Telemedicine Society of India, Tamil Nadu Chapter Newsletter April 2023
Alcohol in Space?
Author: Lukasz Wilczynski
Co-founder European Space Foundation | Originator of the European Rover Challenge project. Experienced dot-connector and communication consultant specialising in technology and innovation.
This interview first featured on the European Space Foundation website
LET’S HAVE A BEER IN THE THERMOSPHERE...
Author: Dr. Paul Zilberman
Medical Doctor, Anaesthetist, Hadassah Medical Center Jerusalem, Israel
This article addresses the notion of buoyancy and why drinking beer in space (the ISS usually orbits in the thermosphere), or any carbonated drink for that matter, does not produce the known tingling sensation we can feel in our noses here on Earth.
So let’s first briefly consider what is buoyancy?
In simple terms, whenever an object is put into a fluid there are several forces that act upon it. The liquid exerts a force from the bottom upwards that tries to push that object up. Then there is the liquid force itself, let’s call it weight, that pushes an object downwards. However, because the liquid pressure increases the deeper you go down into the fluid, there will always be an upwards force bigger than the downward force.
This can be explained by looking at the formula for hydrostatic pressure:
Hydrostatic pressure = pgh
In this formula, p is the density of the liquid, g is the gravitational force (9.81 m/s2) and h is the height of the fluid column measured from the surface. Keeping all the other parameters of the formula constant, the "h" at the bottom of a submerged object will be higher than the one at its top.
But we also have here another component: the "g". Well, there is practically no "g" in space, unless we artificially produce it. So, in this case, all the objects inserted or included into a fluid will just stay there.
Of course, there are many other factors that play a role here, for example the superficial tension of the fluids etc., however, for the sake of simplicity I am considering here only the buoyancy. So, nothing happens with the CO2 bubbles inside the fluid because they are no lighter than the fluid that surrounds them, perhaps looking something like in this photo:
This not mixing between the fluid and gases within creates a hard enough life for anyone who would like to enjoy a beer in space (hypothetically, at least as alcohol consumption is not permitted on the ISS), but let's also not forget the cabin temperature of roughly 20 degrees Celsius, which is way too high to enjoy an ice cold beer. If you want to cool it a bit forget leaving it outside too - just take a look at what the temperatures are "outside", unless of course you want to lick your beer like an ice-cream!
Nonetheless, let's suppose for a moment that an astronaut opened and drank a carbonated drink in space - the same physical properties are valid inside their belly. On Earth, most of the gas separates from the liquid before we drink it and then we simply burp to expel the rest. In space, the bubbles stay in the liquid so the astronaut consumes more gas, meaning a greater need to burp, but the gas would come up still surrounded by some liquid - a "wet burp" - seemingly very unpleasant. A frozen soft drink may be a pleasant alternative. Try pouring some of your beloved carbonated soft drink into a sealable plastic bag, freeze it, and see what you get - tasty, but no fizziness. Well, for everything in space…you need to adapt.
Setting aside the humour for now, this lack of buoyancy in space from a medical perspective can have very serious consequences. Just imagine an infusion bag where you cannot separate the air from the liquid.
It is not difficult to understand that medicine in space is a special endeavour, both in LEO and when we project forward to journeys into deep space. Even if the discovery of new propulsion technologies permit the prospect of a flight to Mars taking only one and a half months, every possibility and probability for the journey and arrival at the red planet must be considered. OK, so we set foot on Mars - oops, a wrong foot, a disaster happens and an astronaut now needs an infusion immediately - what do we do?
So much to think about, but until we figure it out, let's take a break and enjoy an earthly cold beer at sea level - cheers!
1st InnovaSpace Journal Club...
Author: Lucas Rehnberg
NHS Doctor - Anaesthetics & Intensive Care | MSc Space Physiology & Health
Extremely pleased to report on the 1st InnovaSpace Journal Club meeting that had the participation of a very international audience, with attendees from Belgium, Brazil, India, Israel, Italy, Romania, and UK! Thank you to all those who attended and look forward to future talks and discussions.
For those who couldn’t attend, or are interested in the Space Journal Club, I have created a ‘one page’ summary of the paper we discussed. I have also added in the discussion points raised after the critical appraisal of the paper, together with links to additional reading material for anyone wishing to learn more.
PAPER PRESENTED & DISCUSSED:
After 50+ years of spaceflight, the first documented venous thrombus in an astronaut identified - highlighting a new pathology, not previously diagnosed in astronauts.
Who are the authors?
Experts in this field from several space agencies => NASA, IBMP (Russia), ESA
Funding => NASA, under the Human research program. Part of the multi-institution international fluid shifts study.
What is interesting about this paper/ Why would the medical space community be interested in this?
New pathology, not diagnosed before. Potentially massive implications for future long duration missions. LBNP could potentially be a countermeasure to enhance venous blood flow or improve cerebral venous outflow.
The research question.
Loss of hydrostatic gradient and variation on Earth, sustained fluid redistribution. Effect on cerebral venous drainage/blood flow. Possible mechanism linked to SANS? Increased risk of clot formation due to static/retrograde flow?
Why is this research question important?
Static/stagnant flow can predispose individuals to thrombus formation. Long lasting effects of thrombi for astronauts, potentially affecting crew performance (i.e. risk of anticoagulation, emboli, then leading to reduced performance affecting the crew and mission).
The study design.
Primary research => prospective cohort study (follow a similar patient group over time, comparing a particular outcome). Subjects were 11 astronauts, on the ISS.
Ultrasonographic assessment of left IJV (IJV are main conduits of cerebral drainage)
- pre flight (3 positions, seated, supine & head down tilt)
- at approximately D50 and D150 of spaceflight
- with and without LBNP (approx the same days, Russian Chibis-M LBNP)
9 crew members participated in LBNP sessions. 17 LBNP sessions, 10 of these (59%) showed improved IJV blood flow patterns. Other 7 sessions were equal or worse flow. No syncopal episodes recorded.
Potential countermeasure to blood flow stasis and thrombosis (but DIDN’T reach seated baseline in +1Gz).
Flaws? Biases? Limitations?
All papers that involve human subjects in space have a common flaw => lack of numbers (compared to terrestrial studies)
Non-invasive pressure measuring of IJV likely overestimated values. Only the left IJV was assessed (right IJV has been examined previously). No lower limb assessment either (i.e. for DVTs). Measurements over 150 days, LOTS of variables (exercise, EVAs, other activities, diet, etc).
Can these results be applied to your patient population? (i.e. other astronauts)
In my opinion => YES!
Tough with small sample size to draw definitive conclusions. However, it would almost be irresponsible to ignore and say it is a ‘one off’.
Tested in similar population in similar conditions (i.e. not in a lab or analogue in simulated conditions like 6o head down). Space medicine is often ‘best evidence we have’ based, augmented with experts and experience.
Is this clinically relevant and how could this affect future management and treatment?
There needs to be a lot more research to determine the actual level of risk of thrombus formation in microgravity, affects of countermeasures on venous blood flow, and benefits of screening pre and during flight.
Then future management -crews performing point of care ultrasound with minimal support (with time delays going to Mars), limited resources and pharmacy, prophylaxis, risk/benefit of anticoagulation, and so many more questions!
Discussion of the paper after the critical appraisal was very interesting with a variety of topics and issues raised, such as:
Surveillance for jugular venous thrombosis in astronauts. Pavela et al 2022
The Vascular Frontier: Exploring the diagnosis and management of vascular conditions in spaceflight. Drudi et al 2022
Venous Thrombosis during Spaceflight. Auñón-Chancello et al 2020
The effect of microgravity on the human venous system and blood coagulation: a systematic review. Kim et al 2021
Missed the discussion? Catch up below with InnovaSpace YouTube videos!
Sign up to our social media (@InnovaSpaceNews) for future Journal Club dates.
Authors: Space Crew Group Members
Sibsankar Palit, Tomas Ducai, Dhanusshya Raghu, and Raluca Papacocea
“If people sat outside and looked at the stars each night, I’ll bet they’d live a lot differently…….How so?.......... Well, when you look into infinity, you realise that there are more important things than what people do all day.”
Humans are planning to one day build settlements beyond Earth, although it should be noted that, currently, the total number of humans who have ventured beyond Earth (astronauts) is minuscule in comparison to the 8 billion global population. There is still a lot of work to be done. We are still not sure if space travel will be possible for everyone in our respective lifetimes, but in the meantime, there are several cosmic events that we can all witness from this blue dot on which we live. These include eclipses, meteor showers, etc. that occur at specific times, and give us a sense of belonging to the cosmos! So, we should try not to miss these cosmic events if at all possible. There are astronomy clubs and science museums that can be visited, or sometimes we can even view these events online using applications like Stellarium or Youtube, etc.
Outreach activities at the Birla Industrial & Technological Museum, Kolkata (BITM, Kolkata)
Images Credit: Rounak Saha & Astronomy Club, BITM, Kolkata, WB, India
A few members of the InnovaSpace Space Crew working group have actively engaged in observing two vital cosmic events that took place toward the end of 2022 - the Partial Solar Eclipse (25.10.2022) and Total Lunar Eclipse (08.11.2022). Below are a few snapshots of the recent eclipses.
Partially Eclipsed Moon taken on day of Total Lunar Eclipse as shadow of Earth on the Moon faded (08.11.22)
Image credit: Sibsankar Palit
Outreach activities at the Birla Industrial & Technological Museum, Kolkata (BITM, Kolkata)
Image credit: Astronomy Club, BITM, Kolkata, WB, India
Below is a snapshot of the real-time positions of the celestial bodies in the sky, observed
using the Stellarium Mobile Application
It was great witnessing the cosmic event from our planet and sharing the enthusiasm with people with similar interests and a passion for Space and Astronomy.
Solar eclipses should NEVER be viewed directly as this can lead to permanent damage to eyesight. Always take precautions and use appropriate filters or methods to view the solar eclipse.
A lunar eclipse, however, is absolutely harmless to the eyes, so it can be viewed directly.
Other than solar eclipses, as per the warning above, eclipses in general are absolutely harmless and do not negatively affect human life, so don’t miss these wonderful opportunities to feel connected to the cosmos in which we live. Go outside with friends and family, eat and drink and enjoy these cosmic events from the comfort of our home planet Earth!
Want to learn more about Solar and Lunar eclipses?
Visit: A comparative study of Solar and Lunar Eclipses (NASA)
Acknowledgment: The Space Crew Working Group acknowledges the efforts of Sibsankar Palit (in writing and submissions), Tomas Ducai (in submissions and review), Dhanusshya Raghu (in review), and Raluca Papacocea (in submissions and review). We also extend our gratitude to Dr. Thais Russomano for the opportunity to work on this blog.
This blog is promoted and supported by the Space Crew Working Group
String Theory For Babies...
Author: Swapnil K Singh
Undergraduate: Astronomy Research & Mechanical Engineering - Astrophysicist of the future!
Albert Einstein gave the theory of relativity and because of him we know how gravity works and also the nature of space-time. With the help of the theory of relativity, we can say that gravity warps space-time fabric and that's how we feel the effect of gravity.
Later, in year 1921, German scientist Theodor Kaluza came up with an idea that if the force of gravity warps space-time, then other forces like electromagnetic or nuclear forces also warp space-time. However, we know that's not true, so then Kaluza thought that maybe these forces do not warp the space-time of this dimension but warp the space of other dimensions, and so, the theory of other dimensions (string theory) came into existence. The Kaluza–Klein theory (KK theory) is a classical unified field theory of gravitation and electromagnetism built around the idea of a fifth dimension beyond the common 4D of space and time, and considered an important precursor to string theory.
String theory predicts that all objects in our universe are composed of vibrating filaments (and membranes) of energy. It proposes that subatomic particles are sub-sub-subatomic strings. If we zoom in on the particles closely enough, what we usually think of as little billiard balls reveal themselves to be tiny loops or lengths of a more primitive material. These strings vibrate like miniature guitar strings, and each type of particle corresponds to a string playing a certain pitch. These strings came in two forms — closed strings and open strings. An open string has ends that don’t touch each other, while a closed string is a loop with no open end.
Under this theory, as the early universe cooled off after the Big Bang, this unified force began to break apart into the different forces we experience today. Experiments at high energies may someday allow us to detect the unification of these forces, although such experiments are well outside of our current realm of technology.
String theory attempts to unify the four forces in the universe - the electromagnetic force, strong nuclear force, weak nuclear force, and gravity - together into one unified theory. In our universe, these fundamental forces appear as four different phenomena, but string theory believe that in the early universe, at the time of Big Bang Singularity, these forces were all described by strings interacting with each other.
One mathematical result of string theory is that the theory only makes sense in a world with more than three space dimensions, and our universe has three dimensions of space, which are X, Y and Z axes. The extra dimensions are curled up to incredibly small sizes, so we never perceive them. The universe we experience is a 4-dimensional surface in 10-dimensional space.
One of the most unexpected and disturbing discoveries of string theory is that instead of one single theory, it turns out there may be a huge number of possible theories. The Anthropic principle is one of the most controversial aspects of modern string theory, which tries to explain properties of our universe as a result of our presence in it.
Some interpretations of string theory predict that our universe is not the only one. In fact, in the most extreme versions of the theory, an infinite number of other universes exist, some of which contain exact duplicates of our own universe.
One problem with string theory is that instead of the 18 fundamental particles in the Standard Model, supersymmetry requires at least 36 fundamental particles, but scientists have never detected these missing supersymmetric partner particles. Another setback of string theory is that it does not predict the existence of dark energy.
Only time will tell whether string theory is right or wrong, but regardless of the answer, string theory has driven scientists for years to ask fundamental questions about our universe and explore the answers to these questions in new ways.
This blog is promoted and supported by the Space Crew Working Group
**Article and images originally featured on the Virtual Wire website. Reprinted with author permission.
Author: Dr. Paul Zilberman
Medical Doctor, Anaesthetist, Hadassah Medical Center Jerusalem, Israel
Recently, more and more space dreamers and serious scientists foresee a human travelling to Mars.
The closest planet to us in a centre to periphery direction from the Sun, Mars is still at 86,362 million km distance. Hmmmm…
It is said that in similar conditions and with similar materials, the resultant product will usually look the same. Well, Mars is somehow considered a terrestrial planet.
For illustration, I bring two pictures to your attention - similar, but with evident differences. Both show sunrise, but one is from Mitzpe Ramon in Southern Israel, while the other is from Mars. Obviously, the second image was not taken by me!
With a bit of imagination, we can compare both images - would you take your family at the weekend for a grill (BBQ)? In both places?
A grill? Well… let’s see what we need. Here on Earth, we know. But what do we have on Mars?
Minimum temperature of -110 degrees Centigrade - too cold to eat outside.
Maximum temperature is +35 degrees Centigrade. That’s ok, a bit like Mitzpe Ramon. So, let’s do the grill. But something’s missing!
Yes, for fire we need some oxygen. The oxygen level on Mars is 0.2%, roughly 1/100 of what we have on Earth. Hmm… definitely not enough.
And for a good and tasty grill you need to stay next to it and watch the meat, flip it from time to time. This is difficult too as the gravity on Mars is 3.721 m/s2, roughly 1/3 of that on Earth. Kinda floating a bit, isn’t it… ?
So, until we are able to have a grill on Mars, provided we can transport enough meat there and keep it edible, let’s enjoy a traditional and classic one in our own backyard. Enjoy!
But…look to the skies from time to time…You will see Mars with the naked eye.
BTW, we’ve started producing artificial meat over here…
The Ingenious Multifaceted Sarabhai!
Authors: Pooja S, Rohith V, Pranav PD and Sibsankar Palit
The LIFE- To & Beyond colleagues & team
“He who can listen to music in the midst of noise can achieve great things”.
In this quote, Sarabhai emphasises achieving harmony in the state of disorder to attain greatness.
Perhaps you may have heard about the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO), the most cost-effective and efficient space organisation in the whole world, the one that succeeded first-time in its Mars mission and also with a multitude of other ambitious missions. But... do you know the people who were involved in its making?
Let me introduce you to Dr. Vikram Sarabhai - the man involved in the organisation's very foundation and considered to be the Father of ISRO. This remarkable personality also contributed to India and the world in terms of institutional building and serving society through science and technology. He also excelled in helping India to achieve global standing in nuclear power and was Founder of the first Indian Institute of Management (IIM).
A multitalented guy, right?
So, let's get to know more about our hero, Dr. Vikram Sarabhai…..
Early Life & Education
Vikram Ambalal Sarabhai was born to Ambalal Sarabhai and Sarala Devi on the 12th August 1919 in Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India. His father was a textile industrialist and his mother a teacher, who ran the school in which Sarabhai underwent his primary education. Sarabhai had a keen interest in maths and science, and after passing a higher education intermediate science exam at Gujarat College, Ahmedabad, he then studied 'Natural sciences' at St John's College, University of Cambridge in England, graduating in 1940.
Unfortunately, the sudden outbreak of the Second World War forced his return to India, where he joined the Indian Institute of Science (IISC), in Bengaluru (formerly Bangalore). He conducted research on cosmic rays under the guidance of another pioneering Indian scientist and Institution builder Dr. Homi J Bhabha and supervision of Indian Nobel Laureate, Sir Chandrasekhara V. Raman. Within 2 years of his research, he submitted his first scientific paper on the "Time distribution of cosmic rays" in 1942. He finally returned to Cambridge University in 1945 and obtained a PhD in 1947, with his thesis entitled “Cosmic Ray Investigations in Tropical Latitudes”.
The Multifaceted Sarabhai in brief!
Sarabhai returned to India after his PhD and established the Physics Research Laboratory (PRL) in Ahmedabad, originally focused in research on cosmic rays and space physics. It further developed into a specialist centre for Planetary Sciences research and other sub-fields of Astronomy, like Astrophysics, Astrochemistry, and even Astrobiology. He also founded the Ahmedabad Textile Industry's Research Association in 1947. Sarabhai was the first person in the country to realise the importance of management education for the empowerment of a nation and consequently established the Indian Institute of Management Ahmedabad (IIMA) in 1961. The Operations research Group, which was India's first market research organisation, was also set up by him.
In 1962 Sarabhai initiated the Indian National Committee for Space and Research (INCOSPAR), which later went on to become ISRO (1969), contributing to the empowerment of the nation in the Space Sector and its benefits for society. Sarabhai also established the Space Applications Centre (SAC) in Ahmedabad, and the Community Science Centre, later renamed the Vikram A Sarabhai Community Science Centre in his honour, and the Nehru Foundation (1965) focused on solving problems in society.
After the sad demise of close friend and colleague Dr. Bhabha, Sarabhai was invited to become Chairman of the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) in 1966, and contributed greatly to the setting up of India's nuclear power plants. He also began developing indigenous nuclear technologies for defence purposes, initiated the Fast Breeder Test Reactor in Kalpakkam, Tamil Nadu, and the Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre in Kolkata (formerly Calcutta), West Bengal.
Sarabhai & the Indian Space Program
Under his leadership India’s first rocket launching station in Thumba (now the Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre, VSSC) was set up near the magnetic equator in Trivandrum, Kerala. He took an active part in the space research and successfully launched India’s first sounding rocket (RH-75 ROHINI SERIES) on 21st November, 1963.
Fifty-nine years later to the day, on 21st November 2022, we celebrate the anniversary of that ambitious launch and this blog pays tribute to India’s space hero, Sarabhai, and his team. There has now been nearly 60 years of outstanding space exploration initiatives by the Indian Space Program, with 86 successful launches to its credit, and yet more to be achieved!
Sarabhai was the driving force and planner behind India's first satellite Aryabhatta, sent into orbit in 1975 with the help of a Russian Cosmodrome. He established the SAC that helped transmit a nationwide satellite-based television program for students and teachers, and he frequently worked with international space agencies to make space knowledge more accessible to Indians, and to create an Indian space ecosystem. An agreement made with NASA in the 1970s saw their satellites used to deliver educational programs to over 5,000 Indian villages. He encouraged the implementation of a space research program focused on assisting the development of the country and benefitting its people.
Sarabhai honoured & featured
Sarabhai was honoured with some of India’s most prestigious civilian awards: Shanti Swarup Bhatnagar Medal (1962); the Padma Bhushan (1966); and posthumously the Padma Vibhushan (1972). His birthday on 12th August is celebrated every year as Space Science Day, and the Community Science Centre was renamed after him. The International Astronomical Union has named the Bessel A lunar crater in the Sea of Serenity in his honour, the Sarabhai Crater, while India’s Chandrayaan-2 Vikram lander was also named after him, as was ISRO’s VSSC rocket production facility in Trivandrum. The first privately funded rocket, launched by Skyroot Aerospace, is named the Vikram – S in his memory, as is India’s most wonderful engineering innovation, the Vikas engine, which has successfully powered many of ISRO’s rockets. Finally, the lives of both Homi J. Bhabha and Vikram Sarabhai have been highlighted recently with the streaming of a new television series, called Rocket Boys, an Indian Hindi-language biographical television series, released on Sony LIV.
Personal life & demise
During his lifetime, Sarabhai practiced Jainism, an Indian religion advocating a life of nonviolence and reducing harm to living things. He married classical dancer Mrinalini in 1942 and they had two children, a son Karthikeya and daughter Mallika. Sarabhai died suddenly of cardiac arrest on 30th December 1971 (aged 52 years) in Kovalam, Kerala.
In summary, while superpower countries were deploying space technology for control and military power, Sarabhai had a different vision. He dreamt of a unique space program for India – where satellites would be used for mass education, development communication, weather forecasting, and mineral prospecting. The legacy of Sarabhai still lives on today and will continue in the Indian Space Program, the space community and nuclear program, with all focused on homegrown talent, promoting the development of the Indian people.
As Sarabhai befittingly said:
“The development of the nation is intimately linked with understanding and application of science and technology by its people”.
So perhaps - Don’t focus on winning. Focus on the best you can achieve for yourself - sums up Dr. Sarabhai’s vision of achieving greatness for India and the emerging communities with the modest of resources.
Acknowledgment: Team LIFE- To & Beyond acknowledges the efforts of Pooja S, Rohith V, Pranav PD and Sibsankar Palit for their substantial contributions to this blog. We also extend our gratitude to Dr. Thais Russomano for the opportunity to work on this blog.
This blog is promoted and supported by the Space Crew Working Group
Art and Living in Space
Author: Anna Karahan
Photographer | Event & Projects Coordinator | Connecting Art, Science and Business
Science and art have constantly inspired and influenced each other for centuries. Both are based on curiosity, open-mindedness and flexibility – they let humans discover, create, and overcome challenges, encouraging us to look at our world from outside the box, from different angles and perspectives.
What influence does art and design have on today's science, engineering and space exploration?
What is the power of our imagination and creativity?
What meaning does art, design, music and AI have on space stations?
During an interdisciplinary conversation moderated by astronomer Dr. Milena Ratajczak, experts from various fields tried to answer these questions, and more! Taking part in the debate were: Prof. Thais Russomano (InnovaSpace), Dr. Dolly Daou (Food Design Lab, Cumulus org.), Dr. Niamh Shaw (Dream Big - Space Communications), Javier Rodríguez González (CDTI / PERASPERA), Andrea Merlo (Thales Alenia Space), Ben Haldeman (LifeShip), and Mateusz Józefowicz (European Space Foundation).
This conversation took place as part of an Inspiration Zone topic during the European Rover Challenge (ERC2022), which occurred between 9-11 September 2022 in Poland. The focus of the ERC is to promote an international robotics competition. University teams from around the world design, construct and program their own robots, based on artificial intelligence algorithms. The European Rover Challenge is also about the popularization of science and enabling an international networking space. That's why the Inspiration Zone is a crucial element of the ERC. Visitors can expect to see various exhibitors presenting their projects and scientific experiments, as well as meetings with special guests, industry specialists, discussion panels and workshops related to technology, robotics and space.
This blog is promoted and supported by the Space Art Design & Architecture Working Group
Authors: Mario Mollo & Thais Russomano
MM: Physiotherapy student | TR: Director, InnovaSpace | BOTH: Lifelong Space Enthusiasts!
Ever wondered what trees might look like if they grew on other celestial bodies?
Would a tree taken to grow on a planet smaller than ours and with less gravitational force, such as Mars where gravity is one-third that of Earth (hypogravity), have branches and leaves that point upwards, away from the soil?
On the other hand, what if we took a tree to Jupiter, the biggest planet in the Solar System, where the force of gravity is 3.5 times that of Earth (hypergravity)? On this gigantic planet would tree leaves and branches be pulled downwards, unable to defeat gravity, perhaps looking more like the image below?
Or let’s consider a different scenario in which a tree is already native to a planet that has gravity bigger than on Earth – growing from a seed it would adapt straight away to the gravitational force of the planet, and perhaps grow differently. Do you think it might grow with a trunk that is thicker, larger, stronger, like the tree below?
For the moment, however, until we can transport trees and plants to grow on other celestial bodies or perhaps even discover a planet where vegetation grows naturally, we will have to admire the trees that grow and are shaped by the gravitational force of our own planet Earth. These are the trees we have been lucky enough to grow up with, the usual ones that we are so accustomed to, the trees that we must take good care of and protect well, as they are things of beauty and so rare in our Solar System and beyond.
to the InnovaSpace Knowledge Station