Authors: Space Crew Group Members
Sibsankar Palit, Tomas Ducai, Dhanusshya Raghu, and Raluca Papacocea
“If people sat outside and looked at the stars each night, I’ll bet they’d live a lot differently…….How so?.......... Well, when you look into infinity, you realise that there are more important things than what people do all day.”
Humans are planning to one day build settlements beyond Earth, although it should be noted that, currently, the total number of humans who have ventured beyond Earth (astronauts) is minuscule in comparison to the 8 billion global population. There is still a lot of work to be done. We are still not sure if space travel will be possible for everyone in our respective lifetimes, but in the meantime, there are several cosmic events that we can all witness from this blue dot on which we live. These include eclipses, meteor showers, etc. that occur at specific times, and give us a sense of belonging to the cosmos! So, we should try not to miss these cosmic events if at all possible. There are astronomy clubs and science museums that can be visited, or sometimes we can even view these events online using applications like Stellarium or Youtube, etc.
A few members of the InnovaSpace Space Crew working group have actively engaged in observing two vital cosmic events that took place toward the end of 2022 - the Partial Solar Eclipse (25.10.2022) and Total Lunar Eclipse (08.11.2022). Below are a few snapshots of the recent eclipses.
Partially Eclipsed Moon taken on day of Total Lunar Eclipse as shadow of Earth on the Moon faded (08.11.22)
Image credit: Sibsankar Palit
Below is a snapshot of the real-time positions of the celestial bodies in the sky, observed
using the Stellarium Mobile Application
It was great witnessing the cosmic event from our planet and sharing the enthusiasm with people with similar interests and a passion for Space and Astronomy.
Solar eclipses should NEVER be viewed directly as this can lead to permanent damage to eyesight. Always take precautions and use appropriate filters or methods to view the solar eclipse.
A lunar eclipse, however, is absolutely harmless to the eyes, so it can be viewed directly.
Other than solar eclipses, as per the warning above, eclipses in general are absolutely harmless and do not negatively affect human life, so don’t miss these wonderful opportunities to feel connected to the cosmos in which we live. Go outside with friends and family, eat and drink and enjoy these cosmic events from the comfort of our home planet Earth!
Want to learn more about Solar and Lunar eclipses?
Visit: A comparative study of Solar and Lunar Eclipses (NASA)
Acknowledgment: The Space Crew Working Group acknowledges the efforts of Sibsankar Palit (in writing and submissions), Tomas Ducai (in submissions and review), Dhanusshya Raghu (in review), and Raluca Papacocea (in submissions and review). We also extend our gratitude to Dr. Thais Russomano for the opportunity to work on this blog.
This blog is promoted and supported by the Space Crew Working Group
Author: Swapnil K Singh
Undergraduate: Astronomy Research & Mechanical Engineering - Astrophysicist of the future!
Albert Einstein gave the theory of relativity and because of him we know how gravity works and also the nature of space-time. With the help of the theory of relativity, we can say that gravity warps space-time fabric and that's how we feel the effect of gravity.
Later, in year 1921, German scientist Theodor Kaluza came up with an idea that if the force of gravity warps space-time, then other forces like electromagnetic or nuclear forces also warp space-time. However, we know that's not true, so then Kaluza thought that maybe these forces do not warp the space-time of this dimension but warp the space of other dimensions, and so, the theory of other dimensions (string theory) came into existence. The Kaluza–Klein theory (KK theory) is a classical unified field theory of gravitation and electromagnetism built around the idea of a fifth dimension beyond the common 4D of space and time, and considered an important precursor to string theory.
String theory predicts that all objects in our universe are composed of vibrating filaments (and membranes) of energy. It proposes that subatomic particles are sub-sub-subatomic strings. If we zoom in on the particles closely enough, what we usually think of as little billiard balls reveal themselves to be tiny loops or lengths of a more primitive material. These strings vibrate like miniature guitar strings, and each type of particle corresponds to a string playing a certain pitch. These strings came in two forms — closed strings and open strings. An open string has ends that don’t touch each other, while a closed string is a loop with no open end.
Under this theory, as the early universe cooled off after the Big Bang, this unified force began to break apart into the different forces we experience today. Experiments at high energies may someday allow us to detect the unification of these forces, although such experiments are well outside of our current realm of technology.
String theory attempts to unify the four forces in the universe - the electromagnetic force, strong nuclear force, weak nuclear force, and gravity - together into one unified theory. In our universe, these fundamental forces appear as four different phenomena, but string theory believe that in the early universe, at the time of Big Bang Singularity, these forces were all described by strings interacting with each other.
One mathematical result of string theory is that the theory only makes sense in a world with more than three space dimensions, and our universe has three dimensions of space, which are X, Y and Z axes. The extra dimensions are curled up to incredibly small sizes, so we never perceive them. The universe we experience is a 4-dimensional surface in 10-dimensional space.
One of the most unexpected and disturbing discoveries of string theory is that instead of one single theory, it turns out there may be a huge number of possible theories. The Anthropic principle is one of the most controversial aspects of modern string theory, which tries to explain properties of our universe as a result of our presence in it.
Some interpretations of string theory predict that our universe is not the only one. In fact, in the most extreme versions of the theory, an infinite number of other universes exist, some of which contain exact duplicates of our own universe.
One problem with string theory is that instead of the 18 fundamental particles in the Standard Model, supersymmetry requires at least 36 fundamental particles, but scientists have never detected these missing supersymmetric partner particles. Another setback of string theory is that it does not predict the existence of dark energy.
Only time will tell whether string theory is right or wrong, but regardless of the answer, string theory has driven scientists for years to ask fundamental questions about our universe and explore the answers to these questions in new ways.
This blog is promoted and supported by the Space Crew Working Group
**Article and images originally featured on the Virtual Wire website. Reprinted with author permission.
Authors: Pooja S, Rohith V, Pranav PD and Sibsankar Palit
The LIFE- To & Beyond colleagues & team
“He who can listen to music in the midst of noise can achieve great things”.
In this quote, Sarabhai emphasises achieving harmony in the state of disorder to attain greatness.
Perhaps you may have heard about the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO), the most cost-effective and efficient space organisation in the whole world, the one that succeeded first-time in its Mars mission and also with a multitude of other ambitious missions. But... do you know the people who were involved in its making?
Let me introduce you to Dr. Vikram Sarabhai - the man involved in the organisation's very foundation and considered to be the Father of ISRO. This remarkable personality also contributed to India and the world in terms of institutional building and serving society through science and technology. He also excelled in helping India to achieve global standing in nuclear power and was Founder of the first Indian Institute of Management (IIM).
A multitalented guy, right?
So, let's get to know more about our hero, Dr. Vikram Sarabhai…..
Early Life & Education
Vikram Ambalal Sarabhai was born to Ambalal Sarabhai and Sarala Devi on the 12th August 1919 in Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India. His father was a textile industrialist and his mother a teacher, who ran the school in which Sarabhai underwent his primary education. Sarabhai had a keen interest in maths and science, and after passing a higher education intermediate science exam at Gujarat College, Ahmedabad, he then studied 'Natural sciences' at St John's College, University of Cambridge in England, graduating in 1940.
Unfortunately, the sudden outbreak of the Second World War forced his return to India, where he joined the Indian Institute of Science (IISC), in Bengaluru (formerly Bangalore). He conducted research on cosmic rays under the guidance of another pioneering Indian scientist and Institution builder Dr. Homi J Bhabha and supervision of Indian Nobel Laureate, Sir Chandrasekhara V. Raman. Within 2 years of his research, he submitted his first scientific paper on the "Time distribution of cosmic rays" in 1942. He finally returned to Cambridge University in 1945 and obtained a PhD in 1947, with his thesis entitled “Cosmic Ray Investigations in Tropical Latitudes”.
The Multifaceted Sarabhai in brief!
Sarabhai returned to India after his PhD and established the Physics Research Laboratory (PRL) in Ahmedabad, originally focused in research on cosmic rays and space physics. It further developed into a specialist centre for Planetary Sciences research and other sub-fields of Astronomy, like Astrophysics, Astrochemistry, and even Astrobiology. He also founded the Ahmedabad Textile Industry's Research Association in 1947. Sarabhai was the first person in the country to realise the importance of management education for the empowerment of a nation and consequently established the Indian Institute of Management Ahmedabad (IIMA) in 1961. The Operations research Group, which was India's first market research organisation, was also set up by him.
In 1962 Sarabhai initiated the Indian National Committee for Space and Research (INCOSPAR), which later went on to become ISRO (1969), contributing to the empowerment of the nation in the Space Sector and its benefits for society. Sarabhai also established the Space Applications Centre (SAC) in Ahmedabad, and the Community Science Centre, later renamed the Vikram A Sarabhai Community Science Centre in his honour, and the Nehru Foundation (1965) focused on solving problems in society.
After the sad demise of close friend and colleague Dr. Bhabha, Sarabhai was invited to become Chairman of the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) in 1966, and contributed greatly to the setting up of India's nuclear power plants. He also began developing indigenous nuclear technologies for defence purposes, initiated the Fast Breeder Test Reactor in Kalpakkam, Tamil Nadu, and the Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre in Kolkata (formerly Calcutta), West Bengal.
Sarabhai & the Indian Space Program
Under his leadership India’s first rocket launching station in Thumba (now the Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre, VSSC) was set up near the magnetic equator in Trivandrum, Kerala. He took an active part in the space research and successfully launched India’s first sounding rocket (RH-75 ROHINI SERIES) on 21st November, 1963.
Fifty-nine years later to the day, on 21st November 2022, we celebrate the anniversary of that ambitious launch and this blog pays tribute to India’s space hero, Sarabhai, and his team. There has now been nearly 60 years of outstanding space exploration initiatives by the Indian Space Program, with 86 successful launches to its credit, and yet more to be achieved!
Sarabhai was the driving force and planner behind India's first satellite Aryabhatta, sent into orbit in 1975 with the help of a Russian Cosmodrome. He established the SAC that helped transmit a nationwide satellite-based television program for students and teachers, and he frequently worked with international space agencies to make space knowledge more accessible to Indians, and to create an Indian space ecosystem. An agreement made with NASA in the 1970s saw their satellites used to deliver educational programs to over 5,000 Indian villages. He encouraged the implementation of a space research program focused on assisting the development of the country and benefitting its people.
Sarabhai honoured & featured
Sarabhai was honoured with some of India’s most prestigious civilian awards: Shanti Swarup Bhatnagar Medal (1962); the Padma Bhushan (1966); and posthumously the Padma Vibhushan (1972). His birthday on 12th August is celebrated every year as Space Science Day, and the Community Science Centre was renamed after him. The International Astronomical Union has named the Bessel A lunar crater in the Sea of Serenity in his honour, the Sarabhai Crater, while India’s Chandrayaan-2 Vikram lander was also named after him, as was ISRO’s VSSC rocket production facility in Trivandrum. The first privately funded rocket, launched by Skyroot Aerospace, is named the Vikram – S in his memory, as is India’s most wonderful engineering innovation, the Vikas engine, which has successfully powered many of ISRO’s rockets. Finally, the lives of both Homi J. Bhabha and Vikram Sarabhai have been highlighted recently with the streaming of a new television series, called Rocket Boys, an Indian Hindi-language biographical television series, released on Sony LIV.
Personal life & demise
During his lifetime, Sarabhai practiced Jainism, an Indian religion advocating a life of nonviolence and reducing harm to living things. He married classical dancer Mrinalini in 1942 and they had two children, a son Karthikeya and daughter Mallika. Sarabhai died suddenly of cardiac arrest on 30th December 1971 (aged 52 years) in Kovalam, Kerala.
In summary, while superpower countries were deploying space technology for control and military power, Sarabhai had a different vision. He dreamt of a unique space program for India – where satellites would be used for mass education, development communication, weather forecasting, and mineral prospecting. The legacy of Sarabhai still lives on today and will continue in the Indian Space Program, the space community and nuclear program, with all focused on homegrown talent, promoting the development of the Indian people.
As Sarabhai befittingly said:
“The development of the nation is intimately linked with understanding and application of science and technology by its people”.
So perhaps - Don’t focus on winning. Focus on the best you can achieve for yourself - sums up Dr. Sarabhai’s vision of achieving greatness for India and the emerging communities with the modest of resources.
Acknowledgment: Team LIFE- To & Beyond acknowledges the efforts of Pooja S, Rohith V, Pranav PD and Sibsankar Palit for their substantial contributions to this blog. We also extend our gratitude to Dr. Thais Russomano for the opportunity to work on this blog.
This blog is promoted and supported by the Space Crew Working Group
Author: Anna Karahan
Science and art have constantly inspired and influenced each other for centuries. Both are based on curiosity, open-mindedness and flexibility – they let humans discover, create, and overcome challenges, encouraging us to look at our world from outside the box, from different angles and perspectives.
What influence does art and design have on today's science, engineering and space exploration?
What is the power of our imagination and creativity?
What meaning does art, design, music and AI have on space stations?
During an interdisciplinary conversation moderated by astronomer Dr. Milena Ratajczak, experts from various fields tried to answer these questions, and more! Taking part in the debate were: Prof. Thais Russomano (InnovaSpace), Dr. Dolly Daou (Food Design Lab, Cumulus org.), Dr. Niamh Shaw (Dream Big - Space Communications), Javier Rodríguez González (CDTI / PERASPERA), Andrea Merlo (Thales Alenia Space), Ben Haldeman (LifeShip), and Mateusz Józefowicz (European Space Foundation).
This conversation took place as part of an Inspiration Zone topic during the European Rover Challenge (ERC2022), which occurred between 9-11 September 2022 in Poland. The focus of the ERC is to promote an international robotics competition. University teams from around the world design, construct and program their own robots, based on artificial intelligence algorithms. The European Rover Challenge is also about the popularization of science and enabling an international networking space. That's why the Inspiration Zone is a crucial element of the ERC. Visitors can expect to see various exhibitors presenting their projects and scientific experiments, as well as meetings with special guests, industry specialists, discussion panels and workshops related to technology, robotics and space.
This blog is promoted and supported by the Space Art Design & Architecture Working Group
Author: Lucas Rehnberg
NHS Doctor - Anaesthetics & Intensive Care | MSc Space Physiology & Health
My name is Lucas, I am a doctor in the UK working in anaesthetics (or Anaesthesiology for any American readers) and intensive care medicine. I have had an interest in space medicine for over 10 years now, inspired by none other than Prof Thais Russomano who has mentored me over the years and still does. My Master’s dissertation (back in 2009) focused on CPR (cardiopulmonary resuscitation) methods in microgravity, with my continued research interest surrounding critical care in space. I am careful to say that I am a doctor with an interest in space medicine and physiology, as opposed to a ‘Space Doctor’ – as there are many individuals out there who have committed many more years than I have to this field and are vastly more experienced than I am! A club I aspire to join one day.
The idea of this blog, or series of blogs, is to look at some of the latest research in space physiology and space medicine, then consider how this will play out clinically. With a particular focus on critical care and potentially worst-case scenarios when in space (or microgravity environment). Something all doctors will have done in their careers; we are equipped with the skills to critically appraise papers and then ask if they are clinically relevant, or how will it change current practice.
Over the last 60 (ish) years of human space flight, there is lots of evidence to show that there are many risks when the human body has prolonged exposure to microgravity, which can affect most body systems – eyes, brain, neuro-vestibular, psychological, heart, muscle, bone, kidneys, immune system, vasculature, clotting and even some that we haven’t fully figured out yet. But then what needs to be done is to tease out how clinically relevant are these from the research, how could that potentially play out if you were the doctor in space, then how to mitigate that risk and potentially treat it.
Author: Swapnil Singh
Undergraduate: Astronomy Research & Mechanical Engineering - Astrophysicist of the future!
In the beginning, nearly fourteen billion years ago, all the space and all the matter and all the energy of the known universe was contained in a volume which is infinitely small. At that time, conditions were so hot, the basic forces of nature that collectively describe the universe were unified. This extremely dense point exploded with unimaginable force, creating matter and propelling it outward to make the billions of galaxies of our vast universe. Astrophysicists dubbed this titanic explosion as the Big Bang.
In Big Bang cosmology, the Planck epoch or Planck era is the earliest stage immediately after the Big Bang, before the time passed was equal to the Planck time is approximately 10−43 seconds (one ten-million-trillion-trillion-trillionths of a second). As the universe aged through seconds it continued to expand, diluting all concentrations of energy, and what remained of the unified forces split into the “electroweak” and the “strong nuclear” forces. Later still, the electroweak force split into the electromagnetic and the “weak nuclear” forces, laying bare the four distinct forces we have come to know: with the weak force controlling radioactive decay, the strong force binding the atomic nucleus, the electromagnetic force binding molecules, and gravity binding bulk matter.
One of the force splits in the early universe was accompanied with an asymmetry in which particles of matter outnumbered particles of antimatter, thanks to this asymmetry. Without the imbalance between matter and antimatter, all mass in the universe would have self-annihilated, leaving a cosmos made of photons and nothing else.
All of this was happening with the interplay of matter, which includes subatomic particles and energy in the form of photons. This era of the universe is called the quark–lepton era. The universe was hot enough for these photons to spontaneously convert their energy into matter-antimatter particle pairs, which immediately thereafter annihilate, returning their energy back to photons. At this particular time the universe was a seething soup of quarks, leptons, and their antimatter siblings, along with bosons, the particles that enable their interactions. None of these particle families is thought to be divisible into anything smaller or more basic.
As the cosmos continued to expand and cool, growing larger than the size of our solar system, the temperature dropped rapidly below a trillion degrees Kelvin. This universe was no longer hot enough or dense enough to cook quarks, and so they all collided with each other, creating a permanent new family of heavy particles called hadrons. As the universe continued to cool, the amount of energy available for the spontaneous creation of basic particles dropped.
By now, one second of time has passed. The universe has grown to a few light-years across, about the distance from the Sun to its closest neighbouring stars. At a billion degrees, it is still hot and still able to cook electrons and positron counterparts. As the cosmos continues to cool protons fuse with protons as well as with neutrons, forming atomic nuclei and creating a universe in which ninety percent of these nuclei are hydrogen and ten percent are helium. In this particle soup the temperature remains hot enough for electrons to roam free but this freedom comes to an abrupt end when the temperature of the universe falls further and all the free electrons combine with nuclei. The marriage leaves behind a holy bath of visible light, forever imprinting the sky with a record of where all the matter was in that moment, and completing the formation of particles and atoms in the primordial universe.
For the first billion years, the universe continued to expand and cool as matter gravitated into the massive concentrations, we call galaxies. Nearly a hundred billion of them formed, each containing hundreds of billions of stars that undergo thermonuclear fusion in their cores. Those stars with more than about ten times the mass of the Sun achieve sufficient pressure and temperature in their cores to manufacture dozens of elements heavier than hydrogen, including those that compose planets and whatever life may thrive upon them. Thus, the evolution continues...
This blog is promoted and supported by the Space Crew Working Group
Instrutora de mergulho livre, mergulho autônomo e mergulhadora em formação no mergulho profissional raso LinkedIn Profile
O mergulho faz parte de uma série de habilidades para quem busca a carreira astronáutica. Por quê?
A água é cerca de 800 vezes mais densa que o ar, o que dificulta a movimentação subaquática, exigindo além de mais esforço, uma movimentação mais lenta para evitar fadiga que pode levar mergulhadores inexperientes a até abortar o mergulho.
Além disso, a flutuabilidade neutra, ou seja, a capacidade de "boiar" na água permite que o praticante tenha a sensação semelhante à da microgravidade.
Para fazer uso da flutuabilidade neutra como treinamento, as agências espaciais têm usado, ao longo dos anos, laboratórios subaquáticos como o NBL (Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory), localizado em Houston, no Texas, Estados Unidos e que faz parte do complexo da NASA. Segundo a NASA, possui 61,21 metros de comprimento, 30,90 de largura e 12,12 metros de profundidade e permite treinamentos como caminhadas espaciais, comunicação e segurança, além de permitir testes com equipamentos de vídeo e trajes espaciais.
Na ESA (Agência Espacial Europeia), em Colônia, Alemanha, os astronautas são certificados no nível de mergulhadores de resgate. Esse conhecimento, segundo a ESA, permite melhor desempenho dos astronautas nas caminhadas espaciais e permite que previnam problemas e saibam lidar com emergências de modo adequado.
De acordo com a NASA, os astronautas utilizam nitrox (mistura de nitrogênio com uma porcentagem maior de oxigênio, também conhecido como ar enriquecido no mergulho) durante as sessões de treinamento no NBL.
No mergulho dependente saturado não há perda de ar, nem se solta bolhas, como ocorre no mergulho recreativo. Todo o material exalado durante um mergulho saturado, que pode ir até 320 metros de profundidade, é recaptado, reciclado, para depois ser usado novamente na respiração. Isso ocorre porque o gás em questão, além do oxigênio, é o hélio, que tem um custo bastante elevado.
We have been expanding our presence on Mars for several decades now, which involves trial missions, in-depth research, terrain checking, the first human landing on the surface of the Red Planet and the creation of a scientific base. Driven by curiosity and the desire to learn and expand the human possibilities of adapting to new living conditions, we decide to establish colonies on Mars.
The inhabitants of the new Martian city-states are not accidental. They were selected based on their health, intellectual and psychological abilities as well as the skills they will contribute to building a new society, drawing on the lessons learned from the mistakes made on Earth...
Warsaw, 4-6 March 2022
25 students, divided into interdisciplinary groups, begin working on the project of five Martian colonies. They include representatives of geology, law, architecture, design, and culture. Supported by mentors, they try to find answers to the following question: What location on Mars will be the most appropriate for their colony, considering the possibility of easy landing and take-off, access to a water source, as well as the scientific and soil-forming potential of the area?
In terms of architecture and design, they must remember about the impact of temperature, sandstorms, harmful radiation, and meteorite strikes, but also make sure the colonies are self-sufficient and provide shelter for thousands of people. Also in the spotlight are such important questions as: How will our senses react on Mars? What do we, as humans, need to survive in an extreme environment?
The Mars Colony Hackathon participants also discuss whether they want to transfer to Mars the current Earth culture as well as the economic and political status quo, or... on the contrary? Should they take the current trends in sustainability, climate change, inequality, diversity, and the impact of technology on people into account? What values, traditions and rituals will accompany them?
Another sol of 2077 begins.
There are already five colonies on Mars: IGNIS, MARIS, MONADA, M.O.D. AND WEST COAST COLONY. They are all self-sufficient, but willingly cooperate with one another and with Earth in the exchange of goods, know-how as well as education and tourism. They all signed a non-aggression pact.
Goods are transported by centrifugal force technology, and people move between colonies on sub-orbital rocket flights. In the close vicinity, inhabitants travel by rovers.
We visit the IGNIS colony, located in the Athabasca Valley in the Elysium Planitia region.
It arose from a research colony founded in the 2040s by the International Organisation whose inhabitants revolted and declared independence. The main IGNIS doctrine in international relations is not getting involved in the political affairs on Earth. Its inhabitants live in symbiosis with nature, and they base their sustainable development on science. They obtain water thanks from the nearby pingos, and their source of energy is a cosmic solar power plant in a geostationary orbit, sending energy in the form of high-frequency radio beams. The power plant has movable panels, which enable the plant to draw energy throughout the day and night. The inhabitants expect that at a later stage the development of the energy sector will be based on small modular reactors (SMR). The IGNIS system is a hybrid of the republic and direct democracy. Everything that is produced in the colony as well as all the tools and items that the inhabitants use belong to the republic and are used on a shared basis.
We continue our journey to visit the MARIS colony, located in Valles Marineris.
As a result of human activities on Earth, the climate crisis deepened, natural resources were depleted, and biodiversity was disappearing. In the social field, we were affected by wars, social inequality, discrimination, and polarisation. The human condition was also deteriorating because of loneliness and civilisation diseases. The founders of MARIS wanted to change that, so they decided to create their Martian colony – a new community based on responsibility and integrity of human beings with the planet, community, and themselves. The local habitat is famous for its hydroponic crops and baths with saunas. The community cares about good mood and mental health of every citizen, which ensures the proper functioning of the entire colony. Therefore, apart from integration, a common dining room, kitchen, or medical, educational and laboratory space, it places great emphasis on providing the inhabitants with private space. As guests, we are invited to one of the capsule-rooms that function as bedrooms. We immediately experience thermal comfort and silence. We can also regulate the amount of light. The whole room is finished with a soft material and there is a pleasant smell in the air...
Next sol we travel to the northernmost colony of MONADA, located between Mamers Valles and Deutronilus Mensae.
In some philosophical systems, a monad is a basic substance, on the one hand elemental, permeated with individuality, and on the other hand, rich in various types of capital. It gives almost unlimited development opportunities. The MONADA inhabitants treat their colony as an organism which, having a huge and varied potential, can not only develop independently, but also establish relationships with other entities in the world, which is a continuous collection of elementary substances.
Its architectural solutions are also based on spherical units, which are self-sufficient and independent in a crisis, but for the sake of proper functioning of the society they connect with one another to form a network. Each unit has the necessary sectors located on different levels: industry, food production, public utilities, such as hospitals, schools, and religious places, as well as housing. Light runs through each sphere from above and cascades across the room. The radial layout of rooms and internal space can be modified by moving the walls.
The colony has one of the largest deposits of magnesium-rich sulphur oxide and olivine as well as access to several rubble glaciers which constitute the source of water. MONADA sells its medicines, steel, solutions related to design and architecture, including modular furniture, “my personal sun” lamps, personalised “Martian wallpapers”, aromatic postcards from Mars as well as a patented circulation system and inter-colonial rover loading system both to the countries on Earth and the Martian colonies.
The next stop on our Martian journey is M.O.D. (Martian allotments), located in Dao Vallis.
It is an international, democratic colony, still dependent on the Earth for the supply of certain raw materials and resources.
It was built of modular segments created with a 3D printer and completely hidden under the surface of Martian regolith. The main element of the individual residential modules are internal allotments used for garden cultivation, experimenting, and relaxation. The colony focuses on simplicity and minimalism in limited Martian conditions, hence the white walls of the rooms and easy-to-modify segments. The virtual reality used in the colony, however, allows its inhabitants to create an environment that gives a sense of greater security, avatars, or everyday outfits to express themselves and their individual style. Special overalls worn by the inhabitants check their vital functions, hormone levels, and work-life balance simultaneously.
M.O.D. conducts intensive research to increase recyclability and the best possible use of limited Martian resources as well as to develop production and plantations that provide the colony with food and vital products.
The joint work of the M.O.D. inhabitants strengthen intergenerational ties, giving an opportunity for integration and talks. Each of the inhabitants undergoes compulsory training to be able to work in various sectors of the habitat if necessary.
WEST COAST COLONY, located in the Olympus Mont region, is the last stop of our trip.
Separation of powers, peaceful space exploration, cognition and science, high level of education, cooperation between humans and artificial intelligence, transhumanism, and bionics – these are the bases of its functioning.
The area chosen by the inhabitants for their colony is convenient not only in terms of living, but also for geological research. The magnesium- and iron-rich basalt rocks present here are a good raw material for construction and the production of soil fertilisers. The colony bases its economy and exports on them.
The colony is highly automated. Robots are used in the transport of raw materials and products from/to factories, the production of modular elements for housing, cultivation, services, and even administration.
The West Coast Colony inhabitants believe that as humans we have certain limitations, and we must constantly overcome our weaknesses. Therefore, they focus on transhumanism and gene improvement in such a way as to adapt the human body to the difficult Martian conditions. They also place great emphasis on inclusiveness, cultural and social life, common rituals as well as education and learning the truth about the universe. The colony also includes green zones for rest and recreation with plants brought from Earth...
Warsaw, 6 March 2022
We are going back to Earth. There is a war going on across our eastern border and climate change brings us intense winds, rains, earthquakes, and volcanic eruptions...
Some people question the sense of organising such design and humanist workshops or hackathons. But maybe travelling to Mars in our imagination will help us see and express what we do not like here on Earth, change the things that should be changed or even adopt a completely different approach to things we know? Is it not thanks to our dreams and imagination that we are able to look into the future and create the world we want to live in? Not only on Mars, but also here on our planet Earth...
The Mars Colony Hackathon was organised by the US Embassy and the European Space Foundation in cooperation with the Polish Space Agency and Venture Café. The workshop took place on 4-6 March 2022 at the Cambridge Innovation Centre in Warsaw.
Congratulations to the winning team members: MONADA – Julia Jeka, Karolina Kruszewska, Tomasz Leonik, Oliwia Mandrela and Kamil Serafin.
*Blog also published on the European Space Foundation website
This blog is promoted and supported by the:
The Stellar Music project in summary - take musical notes generated mathematically from a star, arrange them into a beautiful tune, and then use your imagination to think of unique ways to illustrate the music. To discover how the music was created visit the blog: innovaspace.org/blog/stellar-music
- Star used = Delta Cephei, part of the constellation Cepheus
- Music arrangement = Miko Mike Oliver Gimao
- AI-generated visuals = Elerias
- Mermaids = Yanyue Lee; Jingfeng Liu; JingYi Lee; Surong Wang; Meijing Lee; & Xiao Qian Bai
Enjoy the cosmic music 🌟🌟🌟
In this week that saw the world celebrate International Women's Day, the InnovaSpace team welcome news about the work of Dr Lucia Hartmann & Jasmin Mittag, with a new concept for the shape of future space travel and a desire to promote equality - an ethos we fully support!
The "Vulva Spaceship"
The first spacecraft in a V-shape is not only a symbol for more diversity in space, but also state-of-the-art and thus more sustainable. The “Vulva Spaceship” designed by “WBF Aeronautics” represents inclusivity, varying from the traditional shapes. Thus, the project adds another dimension to the representation of humanity in space and is communicating to the world that anyone has a place in the universe, regardless of physical characteristics.
Dr. Lucia Hartmann, Head of “WBF Aeronautics” and inventor of the “Vulva Spaceship” reports from her research: “The spaceship’s shape is surprisingly aerodynamic, creating way less drag when the vehicle punches through the Earth’s atmosphere. Due to this optimized V-shape, it guarantees maximum fuel efficiency with an exterior made of reinforced carbon which enables it to withstand the most extreme temperatures.” “WBF Aeronautics” wants to inspire space travel to be open to modern forms and to realise equal opportunities across the universe.
The Project "WBF Aeronautics"
“WBF Aeronautics” is a collaboration between Dr. Lucia Hartmann and her team and “Wer braucht Feminismus?” (WBF). Dr. Lucia Hartmann started her research work about spaceships and discovered that a spaceship varying from traditional shapes, would be more aerodynamic and create less drag, thus being more sustainable.
She reached out to us for the purpose of a collaboration and for us to do the media work as there is much more to it than just the scientific aspect. On the one hand, the topic is sensitive, but on the other hand, it also holds great opportunities. The symbol of a Spaceship in a V-shape represents more diversity in space. The project adds another dimension to the representation of humanity in space.
We believe that equality even has a place in space. It’s time for new symbols in the universe.
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