InnovaSpace congratulates the hard work and dedication of Space System Engineer Marco Romero and Daniela Barbosa and their team of helpers, who dedicate their own time and resources to promoting science & technology initiatives in Angola and beyond. Well done all on your latest activity to inspire the future space generation!
The Thematic Week to Celebrate Rural and Urban Development and looking at the contribution of the Education sector to sustainable development, saw the launch of 10 Editions of Space Science and Technology Comic Books, produced in Angola.
“Ruvi Humbi” illustrates the life of a girl born and raised in a village in southern Angola. She dreams of reaching the stars but a conflict between the cultural and empirical knowledge of her friend Humbi and the scientific knowledge of her physics teacher makes it difficult to realize her dream of exploring the universe.
“Xiamy” recounts the story of two boys who are invited to travel back in time to use the knowledge they acquired in physics and maths classes to help Punguandongo elders improve space surveillance and planetary defense techniques.
“Katutu – The Space Engineer” - Young Katutu is a dreamer who goes through the phases of discovering his profession. His regular routine of life as a student and homework is interspersed with dreams in which Katutu discovers a robot with whom he learns what it is like to be a Space Systems Engineer and how he can contribute to space science and technology that changes the world.
“Tropa dos Kandengues” - A group of young scientists go on a study trip to the Namibe desert, imagining its dry red landscape to be like a trip to the red planet Mars, and they apply all their knowledge acquired in classes on human and robotic exploration of the Solar System.
The comic books were pre-released on November 6th, 2021 to children, educators, investors and other members of the educational system, with the ultimate aim of receiving feedback, support and contributing to the Educational community around the world.
Can you help support their work in some way? Drop us a line and we can connect you!
Introduction from Eija Salmi, Secretary General, Cumulus Assoc. & Thais Russomano, CEO, InnovaSpace:
During the 21st century outer space has become a topic for discussion by passionate people in design universities worldwide. Some institutions have piloted initiatives and have ongoing activities in the art, design and media curriculum focused on space, considering how design can contribute to overcoming the challenges humanity will encounter when exploring this new frontier. We know for certain that living off-Earth will bring multiple challenges that require innovative solutions if we are to inhabit another planet. The field of design will be an essential element in facilitating space life, just as it is present everywhere in our lives here on Earth, whether on its own or collaboratively with other disciplines, such as medicine, engineering etc. Design education and research plays a massive role not only for the design profession, but also for business, industry and other institutional stakeholders in the space era to ensure a good, healthy and secure space future.
The aim of this blog today, written by Dr Dolly Daou, is to share knowledge and inspire all of us to rise to the challenges of humanity’s tomorrow in outer space – inspired by design. This is the first in a series!
Enjoy and please do share on your social media!
On Planet Earth, we have been accustomed to living our lives conditioned by daily habits; we eat, sleep, cook, work, walk, build, interact according to our environments, grounded by gravity. Culturally, we differ in customs, in habits, we eat different food, we live differently, we speak different languages, however what unifies us is the relationship between our physiology and our topography. This relationship is the result of the universal gravity system and the evolution of beings and their environment on Planet Earth, the Blue Planet. The colour blue refers to the interaction of solar rays with the gases of Earth's atmosphere. Similarly, Planet Mars is known as the Red Planet in reference to the mass of red soil that covers its surface. The colour coding of both planets reflects the relationship between our biological existence and our environmental characteristics, which influence our daily habits and our survival traits on these planets.
On Planet Earth, when we travel from a lush green environment to a yellow desert environment, or a blue beach environment, our habits change. We see a change in our built environment, building material, urban landscape, interior living conditions, our diet, temperature, and there will be a change in our physiology, our characteristics, and our daily habits. When designing a habitable environment on Mars, a planet with completely different atmospheric qualities to what we are used to on Earth, adaptation to the new tough living conditions must be taken into consideration for survival purposes - biological, social, and cultural. Hence, self-sufficient cabins and new food ecosystems have been tested in space shuttles and on Mars searching for new short and long-term living solutions. In the 1950s the term “cabin ecology” appeared to describe the interior living system or environment of a space vehicle. Science historian Peder Anker mentions, the design of Cabin ecology, “was to make their [space crew] environment as close as possible to the environment found on the surface of the earth”. Similarly, Suzanne Flinkenflögel mentions the adaptation to living on Mars is similar to adapting to other extreme environments on Earth and architecture has a role to play in designing the living conditions, Flinkenflögel writes: “Much like in Antarctica or aboard the International Space Station, human life is impossible in challenging environments without the aid of life support systems. Keeping a crew alive, comfortable and healthy...”
Since adaptation to the Mars living conditions is impossible in the exterior environment, exploring these interior systems from an interior architecture and design perspective offers a new approach to understand and design new solutions for the Martian daily habits, while respecting our relationships with our new planetary environments.
So, what happens when we change our living environment from Blue to Red with gravitation difference of 2.66 times on Mars to that of 0.375 on Earth, which is one-third of Earth gravity. On Mars the red soil indicates a high presence of iron oxide chemicals with 96% carbon dioxide, and less than 1% oxygen and 80 degrees Fahrenheit. These tough atmospheric conditions render Mars unhabitable on the exterior for terrestrial beings. However, to survive these conditions we would have to live in supported interior environments and construct artificial ecosystems of air, water and soil in controlled capsules known as, ‘Mars habitats’. Thais Russomano describes the long-term effect of living on Mars and how micro-gravity influences our physiology: “Bones are no longer required to support the weight of bodies as they do on earth and as a result, they begin to lose mass. This effect is seen mostly in the lower limbs where up to 2% of mass a month can be lost in the calcaneus.” In 1976, a feasibility study by NASA revealed that even extremophile organisms, specifically adapted for the Martian environment would take a few thousand years of evolution to be fit to inhabit Mars. Since eating is one of our main biological need for our survival, on Earth we dedicate a large amount of space and time in our cities and in our interior environment for the pleasure of preparing food and of eating. This is why, NASA space missions have been researching and testing new Martian food systems on space shuttles for new short and long-term solutions for food storage, and for a new Martian diets, mainly made from algae and insects.
Food consumption and production on Mars include conceptual solutions to convert large amounts of carbon dioxide on Mars into oxygen and exploring recycling water for the Martian plants’ habitats. The above picture was shared on Astronaut Scott Kelly’s Instagram for Valentine's Day, who successfully nursed dying space zinnias back to health on the International Space Station using an artificial support ecosystem. From an interior architecture/design perspective, when designing interior spaces, we explore the purpose of the space by researching people’s everyday habits and activities and the relationship between the space and its environment. So, how would the Martian archetypes and typology of artificial ecosystems and habitable spaces/places reflect our new habits in the Martian environment, which include eating and food production? Will we be taking our terrestrial bad habits with us to Mars by exploiting the Martian natural resources? These are open provocative questions to be researched and explored. Although they are rhetorical questions for now they do open the opportunity for a dialogue across professions and across disciplines for the settlement on the new ‘Martian colony’.
In interior architecture/design space and place mean different things. While space is the overall environment (the form or the shape), place is about the experience and the identity. Placemaking is how we transform the space into place, making it our own. We can forever discuss architectural forms and science-fiction buildings that defy gravity and float in space but how will we live, where will we work, eat, sleep, walk or even fly? These intimate details of the everyday construct our placemaking, which contain our cultural habits, and identities. The domed shaped structures of the homes designed by The Line Visualisation architectural studio, reflect the architecture cliché when we dream about science fiction celestial living. This typology might not have been the original intention of the architects, although on Instagram Moon is mentioned under the geolocation of ‘The house in the clouds’, which indicates an intention of a celestial design.
On Earth we know that to walk we have to lift our legs, to sit we have to bend our knees, we eat through our mouths to experience different tastes and nutrients. In microgravity environments we will have to recondition our brain and our living environments to inhabit a new site with new material conditions influenced by: gravity, solar orientation, air, water and soil. These are the very elements that influence the interior architecture/design placemaking principals.
The above structures express an imaginary dream of transporting our homes and our daily habits to celestial environments with us, as we transport our belonging when we go for a terrestrial holiday. How realistic will this life be on Mars or how relevant will these structures be in the new environment? If we know what our purpose on Mars will be, we will know what and how to design. Since we cannot adapt to the new Martian environment, we are already forcing the environment to adapt to us, hence repeating the same mistakes we are experiencing on Earth. What will our daily habits be on Mars? Will we lie down when we sleep, as we have been accustomed to on earth or will we stand up? Especially that we know with low gravity our muscles will function differently. Although these are scientific and biological questions, I am approaching these questions of survival on Mars from an interior design and a food design perspective to understand how to design our new artificial interior and food ecosystem with low gravity and oxygen.
In our current living environment on Earth our brains have been conditions to live and act in a certain way acquiring cultural living habits over centuries and millions of years of adaptation and evolution to the point that we perform these daily banal tasks automatically. We have learnt to experience our cities on the exterior on a micro and a macro scale. The above image of Hong Kong is a familiar landscape of an urban skyline that we immediately recognise its architype, although we might not know its geolocation, or we might never have visited Hong Kong. We know how to live and build without thinking about essential survival elements, such as oxygen, water, and gravity. We design and live with what we know, based on historical architectural archetypes and typology. We think of gravity when we need to defy it in our architectural creation to make the building look weightlessness or floating in mid-air as shown in the image of the Serpentine Gallery Pavilion. How will we recreate our own Martian place in space? Especially that the colour scheme has already been selected by the red soil and its material condition, which has already determined that we will be living in interior capsules.
So far designs for the ‘Martian colony’ reveal that we design with what we know, from our existing knowledge and memory, from our experience and since we have not yet experienced life on Mars we will be designing based on our own terrestrial experience. However, we will need to understand more our purpose on Mars and our relationship to the Martian environment to design with respect the eco-systems of ‘the new colony’. By definition ‘colonisation’ mean “the action of appropriating a place or domain for one's own use”. Judging from previous colonisations experiences on earth, will we be imposing our ‘bad habits’ on Mars as we did on Earth repeating the same mistakes by disregarding the existing environment and its original identity? Also, a question has been posed lately by Prince William shouldn’t we fix our problems on earth before we ‘colonise new planets’? Especially, with the ‘Mars habitat’ we will be forcing terrestrial living habits on a new planet with completely different environmental conditions. Our eco-cabins will change the environmental composition of Mars as we are currently doing on Earth. Research is still underway to find solutions for the new Martian colony and only time would tell how we will transform a space into our place. Before we move into Mars, we need to answer clear questions such as: What would be our purpose? And what Martian activities will we be performing everyday? Answering these questions will determine our Martian living lifestyle as aliens on Mars.
Blog Author: Dr Dolly Daou
A doctorate in the fields of interior architecture and urbanism with 21 years of international experience in design Research & Development and in strategic leadership. Daou is an international expert and has a diversity of skills in design pedagogy, international alliances and higher education quality assurance in Australia, Asia, Europe and the Middle East. Combining her Doctorate knowledge and her interior architecture and urbanism skills with design management and strategies, Daou developed bespoke design research workshops and community projects for all sectors with beneficial ecological and economical tangible results. Daou directed many design and architecture programs and is currently a mentor at Rolemodel Rebels, a start-up Community Manager at the European Innovation Council EU, a member of Australian Business in Europe, Founder and Chair of New Eating Habits Working Group, Cumulus Association, Congress Ambassador of Dubai Tourism and Author many publications including: Unbounded on the Interior and Interiority.
Space psychology is an extremely significant area of study. Combining insights from all areas of the wider field (i.e., organizational, industrial, cognitive, psychiatry), it aims to optimise human behaviour and cognition in space.
In terms of its history, space psychology has received varying degrees of attention over time. Whilst its importance was acknowledged at the inception of NASA in 1958; in the early 1990s Dr Patricia Santy (a NASA flight surgeon and psychiatrist) illustrated the industry’s relative disregard for the area, claiming that the application of psychology to space was running 20-30 years behind most other areas of medicine. However, with ever-increasing pressure from academics (i.e., the Committee on Space Biology and Medicine), the establishment of continuously inhabited long-term research stations with multinational crews (i.e., with astronauts joining cosmonauts on Mir in 1993, and the first stay on the ISS in 2000), and a number of high-profile incidents, for example, the theorised termination of the Soviet Soyuz T14-Salyut 7 mission due to depression and the attempted murder by astronaunt Lisa Nowak, the relevance of psychological issues has become increasingly pertinent.
Research within the field is predominantly focused on ensuring selection/training programmes prepare astronauts for the psychological demands of space travel, developing effective inflight support strategies and helping individuals re-adapt following their return to Earth. Studies can be conducted both in-orbit, and in terrestrial simulators and space analogs (i.e., undersea vessels and polar outposts), which attempt to produce a degree of environmental realism, and have aided in identifying the consequences of the intrapsychic/interpersonal stressors that astronauts encounter, such as team conflict, impaired communication/”psychological closing”, social isolation, threat of disaster, high-stakes/demanding work, public scrutiny, microgravity, radiation exposure, immobility etc... Such research findings can then be applied to develop models of successful crew performance (i.e., in terms of gender composition, and types of goals) and produce effective intervention strategies, like enhancement medications and therapeutic software. For instance, optical computer recognition scanners have been developed by NASA to track astronaut facial expressions and assess potential changes in their mood, allowing for personalized intervention strategies (i.e. computerized CBT treatment). Notably, whilst much research focuses on studying/overcoming the negative aspects of space travel, a robust finding is the salutogenic “overview effect” (White, 1987), which refers to how viewing the Earth from space fosters a sense of appreciation/wonder, spirituality and unity amongst crew members. It is theorised by Yaden et al. (2016) that this emotional reaction is a result of the juxtaposition between the Earth’s features and the black backdrop of space, which emphasises the beauty, vitality, and fragility of Earth.
With forecasted missions focusing on the potential for interplanetary (and eventually interstellar) travel, we need to prepare accordingly. Not only will these missions be much more protracted in terms of their distance/duration (with the longest period spent in space currently standing at 14 months, and a round trip to Mars predicted to take 2.5 years), they will also be subject to the pressure of larger, multinational crews, with no hope of evacuation, lack of protection from the Earth’s magnetic field, and distance-related communication delays (averaging 25 minutes to Mars/500 minutes to Neptune and back). Additionally, astronauts will not be able to observe the Earth and derive the aforementioned associated benefits of this experience; coined the ‘Earth-out-of-view phenomenon’ (Kanas, 2015; Kanas & Manzey, 2008), which may magnify potential feelings of homesickness and isolation. As such, we need to develop effective strategies to counteract these novel stressors, with researchers considering the benefit of fitting protective outer shields to isolated parts of spaceships (where astronauts spend the majority of their time) in order to mitigate against the effect of radiation from cosmic rays, email messages that conclude with suggested responses in order to reduce communication times, and virtual reality systems/on-board telescopes to minimise feelings of separation from Earth.
Having discussed the historical development of space psychology, the scope of research conducted, and the forecasted future of the field, I hope I have impressed on you the significance of such an exciting area of study. Managing human behaviour in space is an interdisciplinary effort, and as the government monopoly on spaceflight diminishes (i.e., with the launch of commercial/private space ventures like SpaceX), and the number/complexity of missions increases, the importance of space psychology will become ever more apparent.
We continue to follow along with the wonderful experience of ESA-sponsored Dr Stijn Thoolen during his year spent at the Concordia research station in Antarctica. Catch-up with his previous blogs at Part 1, Part 2, Part 3, Part 4, Part 5, Part 6, Part 7, Part 8
Dr Stijn Thoolen
Medical Research Doctor, Concordia Research Station, Antarctica
Fortunately it is not all body fluids (and solids) in the ESA lab. Other projects are more interested in the psychological adaptation to space-like environments. How do we deal mentally with the isolation far from home, the confinement, monotony, and life in a small international crew? The experiences and stressors that crews face during such missions require a certain degree of mental resilience, or may otherwise result in cognitive or behavioural problems and a loss of performance that can be dangerous to both the crew and the mission. To facilitate such psychological adaptation and resilience, the scientists behind MINDFULICE (‘role of mindfulness disposition in an isolated and confined environment’) for example are investigating the use of ‘mindfulness’ as a tool for deep space missions.
‘But isn’t that something for Buddhist monks?’, I hear you question…
I actually like to think it is quite the opposite. And although maybe it isn’t an easy construct to grasp, we are all already mindful to a certain degree. Perhaps it is best to think of it as a mental process, of being aware in the present moment, welcoming what is new with an intention of kindness and compassion, and being open-minded enough to see new possibilities in any given situation rather than relying on what you have previously learned. Everyone does that to a certain degree, but everyone can also learn to do it more.
Perhaps that is the biggest reason that the concept is gaining so much popularity so quickly. In our stressful and busy lives, mindfulness helps us to see solutions rather than problems, and research has already demonstrated many of its benefits, spanning from health and well-being to even business and artistic endeavours! A mindful attitude has shown to reduce stress while increasing resilience, task performance, enjoyment, psychological and even physical well-being, and in general a higher quality of life. That, I would say, is the promising power of the mind!
So can mindfulness also help astronauts to cope with the harshness of a deep space mission? We like to think so, but to find out we must first understand how it relates to stress and psychological wellbeing in such conditions, and Concordia serves as the ideal testing ground. Of course that means more tests for us, so over the year we fill in questionnaires and perform attention tasks to determine how mind- and stressful we actually are. And how about you? Are you mindful enough to one day float to the stars?
Note: this article was originally posted on the ESA blog website (LINK) and permission has been obtained to republish it here.
LINK for Part 1 of On Spaceships and Saunas
Human nature has long been associated with pleasure, a powerful feeling capable of articulating body and soul, thus releasing mankind, even if momentarily, from its all-too-grounded existence on Earth, destined as it seems to endure a rather laborious, extenuating, survival oriented life.
As we've reached the 21st century, any contemplation of a better world has been blatantly discouraged by the force of capitalism and the so-called Anthropocene. Indelibly marking the planet at current times, and acting as a new geological era signalling the exhaustion of life on Earth, this human phenomenon brings into question how the promiscuous entanglement between culture, technology and nature has utterly transformed our landscapes and lives, forging a second nature as artificial as the romantic projection of a first nature – or of what it had possibly been prior to civilisation.
COVID – 19 is just one of the side effects of a runaway world, whose current features are as resembling of a sci-fi novel as they are of our innermost disquieting images of a collapsing future, depicted with the same curiosity and fear of extinction that propels humankind vertically towards the outer space, the Moon and beyond. In the midst of this not so brave new world, how could the overlapping spheres of angst, science and pleasure impact our minds and future?
It's still soon to predict how the world will appear and operate in the near future. Philosophers and scientists alike argue that the current pandemics and climate atrocity has opened up The window of opportunity that could allow us to reshape the world, not only environmentally speaking but also politically on all levels: to slow down consumption, communication and capitalism; to (re) establish the welfare state; to expand democracy and consolidate democratic societies, which have been gradually fading in recent years (the US and Brazil to name but a few); to preserve the ozone layer, the Amazon and endangered species elsewhere; to nourish solidarity among nations and citizens; to enjoy a more fulfilling, frugal and pleasurable life; the list of wishes/demands goes on and on...
For all we know, so far, not only life on the planet has been exposed in its extreme feebleness – to the extent of reaching a point of no return – but also the innermost human qualities have been put at stake, risking gradual loss of affection and therefore emotional numbness.
Humanity has been enduring dramatic shifts in its sensibility in the recent past. AIDS had already reframed sexuality in the 1980's, banning free sex from the world agenda and establishing caution as the common ground for all human sex interaction, while the Internet has virtually been separating individuals physically and therefore emotionally in an unforeseen fashion.
In this increasingly aseptic world – at least, when it comes to human interaction – that nonetheless bears a tremendous virulent and filthy relationship towards nature, it remains to be seen if our civilisation will eventually be able to preserve not only saunas, sex and the human factor in all its diversity, but foremost the planet as a sustainable, democratic and pleasurable environment for generations to come, in the near and distant futures.
Albeit this toxic atmosphere, it would be wise to keep Mars and the black holes as speculative research fields – even if we do manage to reach them in the flesh – and not the sole and only escape route of a sombre, drained and dangerous, ill-fated world.
Since art and science operate as portals to the realm of fiction, allowing us to delve into the unknown – and perhaps to grasp reality in all its (lack of) plasticity –, the notions of invention and discovery become analogous, driving forces that help us shape both the present and the future through politics and imagination.
Art has insightfully contributed to shaping the future throughout modern history and beyond; if not always forging reality itself, feeding our prospective imagination. In regard to literature, suffice to mention the visionary minds behind the novels From the Earth to the Moon, by Jules Verne; 1984 by George Orwell; or Mars Trilogy, by Kim Stanley Robinson, to name but a few. As for cinema, so that we keep it as close as possible to the imminent dystopian reality, one could recall Outbreak, by Wolfgang Petersen, or Contagion, by Steven Soderbergh. Yet, there is another film we could call into play in order to foster images and ideas that may offer us a devious perspective on intimacy in an era of space missions to Mars, HIV, COVID–19 and other pandemics alike.
High Life, a feature by French director Claire Denis, takes place on a spaceship launched into the cosmos bearing a crew of expatriates whose diverse biographies have accomplished a vast array of crimes and misdemeanours – they all had been sentenced to death prior to their departure from planet Earth. This manned mission is destined to reach the outskirts of the universe, to source energy from a black hole and to conceive human life through artificial insemination in outer space. Here, instead of the most "apt and healthy" (as envisaged by NASA missions, for example), a vessel is filled with outcasts.
The onboard scientist played by Juliette Binoche, condemned for having killed her very own baby in the earthly past, switches between scientific commitment and nymphomania. Notwithstanding, she uses her criminal peers as guinea pigs to give birth to a child in this increasingly hostile environment. And since sexual intercourse is prohibited in the spacecraft, in order to get sexually aroused, ejaculate and survive the deprivation of pleasure, they all make use of a special device called The Box: a dedicated S&M room of sorts, equipped with an ergonomic technology designed to fit the human sexual needs, deeds and desires.
Within this volatile context, the crew is invested with deep, obscure purposes. Repressed sexual drive affects each and every passenger in this hermetic and remote capsule of life, producing the spark of madness that eventually unbalances that highly combustible atmosphere, unfolding an uncontrollable stream of violence and death.
On a different note, consider another type of vessel, one that is not floating about the universe but instead rooted in a rather mundane, if not decadent environment, also designed for pleasure: a sauna.
Brazilian artist Adriana Varejão has been obsessed painting steaming rooms for over 20 years now. Devoid of human presence, her grid-tiled canvases appear as both physical and mental spaces onto which one can project its most secretive imagination; those are rooms of utmost intimacy where fantasies and desires acquire shape.
The human body, although absent in Varejão's saunas, remains an ever present ghost emanating frailty, sex, pain and pleasure – from time to time, the artist maculates her pristine surfaces with blood, or a wad of hair, remains of a fluid and perishable human nature. Those paintings transpire a residue of life: the stillness of an action that has just evaporated from earth. A moment suspended in time, or a moment of death, perhaps?
Now, imagine not a spaceship but a sauna drifting in deep space, in the vacuum of time. No one is inside, just the interior covered in tiles, producing a steamy & misty atmosphere charged with the latency of human desire, impregnated by the vestiges of human dreams. This vessel might be carrying microbes, bacteria, illnesses elsewhere, nobody will ever know.
Above all, this flying sauna encapsulates everything that once was human and is no more; this inhospitable room no longer serves any purpose as there is no man or woman to inhabit the ever-floating cocoon of imagination, sex, desire and struggle to breathe.
Sex in space remains a tacit taboo. No one talks about it – and presumably no one has ever had sex in outer space.
NASA has never revealed any research on the well known odds of attempting to engage in sexual contact in a zero gravity room, although speculation allows us to imagine that synchronising the movements would be a difficult, if not impossible task – not to mention the amount of sweat produced by the human body under such conditions. Apparently, there would be bulky drips of sweat floating around, splashes of human sticky secretions all over the room, besides the thick layers of grease covering the lover's skins.
Much has been said about cosmic sex between astronauts in space missions, although nothing has been confirmed yet. In the year 2000, an article in The Guardian, by Jon Henly, referred to a book published by a French science, space and astronomy writer called Pierre Kohler, who claimed that both US and Russian astronauts had enjoyed sex during separate important research programmes into how humans might survive for several years in orbit.
According to Kohler's book, "there existed a confidential Nasa report, to which he had gained access, detailing a space shuttle mission in 1996 during which a project codenamed STS-XX was to explore precisely which sexual positions were possible in a weightless atmosphere; two guinea pigs had reportedly tested the 10 positions deemed most suitable for a spot of the old zero-gravity how's-your-father." The report, again according to Kohler's book, concluded that "only four positions were in fact possible in space without 'mechanical assistance' (the missionary position was not one of them). It added, tantalisingly, that a videotape, albeit censored, existed of the experiment."
These claims ended up deemed as pure hoax by the space agencies of both nations. Who knows?
Autores: Beatriz Helena Ramos Reis*, Bruno Veiga Fontes de Carvalho*, Prof Jonas Lírio Gurgel**, Prof Flávia Porto*
*Instituto de Educação Física e Desportos, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ)
A pandemia de COVID-19 gerou a necessidade de utilizar medidas de distanciamento social para que haja a redução da disseminação do novo coronavírus. Contudo, têm-se percebido prejuízos na saúde física e mental dos indivíduos, porque a mudança brusca na rotina resultou em um novo estilo de vida das pessoas, que passaram a viver em confinamento. Aumento de preocupações, ansiedade, tristeza prolongada e sedentarismo são algumas das consequências ocasionadas ou agravadas pelo isolamento.
Como forma de minorar esses efeitos, o exercício físico continua sendo reconhecido como uma estratégia não-medicamentosa eficaz que auxilia na prevenção e no tratamento de doenças físicas, metabólicas e/ou psicológicas. Entretanto, a suspensão e a limitação do uso de estabelecimentos, como academias de ginástica e clubes esportivos, para evitar aglomeração, levaram muitas pessoas a praticar atividades físicas regulares em casa.
Nesse contexto, percebeu-se um fenômeno interessante na internet, que foi o aumento da busca por informações online. O Google Trends, por exemplo, é um recurso que expõe os termos mais pesquisados em diferentes lugares do mundo e revela sua popularidade em uma escala de 0 a 100. Nele, foi possível identificar o aumento da busca por informações relacionadas às consequências e necessidades geradas pela pandemia. Nesse contexto, vimos que, no Brasil, as buscas pelo termo “exercício físico em casa”, em Português, antes de março de 2020, teve popularidade baixa (oscilando na escala entre 0% e 25% de procura via Google). Após esse mês, quando se iniciou o distanciamento social no país, a busca pelo termo oscilou, aproximadamente, entre 40% e 100% até o momento atual. Ao analisar o termo “physical exercise at home”, em Inglês, notou-se que, em janeiro de 2020, as buscas estavam entre 0% e 25%. De fevereiro até maio deste ano, as buscas estiveram entre 25% e 100%, diminuindo em junho, momento em que vários países afrouxaram as regras de isolamento. Ao observar esses dados, notamos um aumento considerável na popularidade dos termos durante esse período, demonstrando um maior interesse de internautas sobre o assunto. Essas oscilações parecem ter relação com o fechamento e abertura de comércio e demais atividades no mundo.
Interessante também mencionar a necessidade de adaptar os exercícios a ser realizados em casa. Dessa forma, percebeu-se que o interesse por equipamentos esportivos para realizar exercícios físicos em casa também aumentou, sendo demonstrado nas buscas no Google. A pesquisa pelo termo “equipamentos para atividade física”, nos dois primeiros meses desse ano, estava próxima a zero em níveis de interesse; já em março, o interesse aumentou bastante, chegando a atingir 100 no mês de abril. Em todo mundo, o termo “equipment for physical activity”, pesquisado na língua inglesa, mostrou pico de interesse (100 na escala) no mês de fevereiro e menor interesse próximo ao início de junho (0 na escala). Como a pandemia ainda não está controlada, inclusive com previsão de novas ondas de contágios e mortes, é bem provável que os hábitos das pessoas mudem, realmente, como forma de adaptação à nova realidade.
Apesar da reconhecida resiliência das pessoas, não se pode negar que os prejuízos psicológicos são evidentes e, muitas vezes, é até difícil entender esses sentimentos e lidar com a magnitude que podem atingir. Pensando nisso, repetimos o processo de investigação no Google Trends e verificamos que o termo “depressão na quarentena” não apresentava interesse da população Brasileira entre janeiro e início de março (0 na escala) – esse desinteresse deve-se, provavelmente, ao fato de que ainda não existia o confinamento social no Brasil. Porém, a partir de março, a busca pelo termo cresceu muito, atingindo o pico de pesquisa (100 na escala) no início do mês de maio. Quando pesquisado, em Inglês, o termo “quarentine depression” também não houve interesse pela população mundial entre os meses de janeiro até o início de março. A partir daí, iniciou-se um aumento exponencial pela procura do termo, atingindo seu pico no mês de abril e, após, uma sequente diminuição até o mês de junho.
Do espaço ao COVID-19: o que podemos aprender? Astronautas devem saber lidar com o confinamento e, apesar de serem submetidos a diversos tipos de treinamento para cumprir de forma adequada as missões espaciais, efeitos psicológicos provocados pelo confinamento são relatados na literatura. No caso da COVID-19, não houve preparo para essa nova realidade. Estamos todos tentando desenvolver mecanismos para desenvolver resiliência e melhor lidarmos com a pandemia e todos os acontecimentos relacionados à ela. A internet torna-se uma aliada, uma companhia provedora de informações e possibilidades de compras para as pessoas. O desafio agora é lidar com essa quantidade de informações, separando-as em relação à veracidade e à aplicabilidade.
THE INTERNET, PHYSICAL EXERCISE AND DEPRESSION: WHAT IS THE RELATIONSHIP DURING THE COVID-19 PANDEMIC?
Authors: Beatriz Helena Ramos Reis*, Bruno Veiga Fontes de Carvalho*, Prof Jonas Lírio Gurgel**, Prof Flávia Porto*
*Institute of Physical Education and Sports, State University of Rio de Janeiro (UERJ)
The COVID-19 pandemic has generated the need to employ social distancing measures to reduce the spread of the new coronavirus. However, negative effects on the physical and mental health of individuals have been noted, as the sudden change in routine has resulted in a new lifestyle for people, who are now spending their lives in confinement. Increased worries, anxiety, prolonged sadness and inactivity are some of the consequences caused or aggravated by isolation.
Physical exercise continues to be recognised as an effective non-medication strategy that is useful for mitigating these effects, as it helps in the prevention and treatment of physical, metabolic and/or psychological diseases. However, measures taken to suspend and limit the use of establishments, such as gyms and sports clubs, to avoid people gathering together, have led to many people undertaking regular physical activities within the home.
In this context, an interesting phenomenon has been seen on the internet, which is an increase in the search for information online. Google Trends, for example, is a resource reporting the most searched terms in different locations of the world and reveals the popularity of these terms on a scale of 0 to 100. It was possible from this to identify an increased search for information related to the consequences of the pandemic and the needs it has generated. It can be seen that in Brazil, prior to March 2020, searches for the term in Portuguese “exercício físico em casa” had low popularity (fluctuating between 0% and 25% on the scale of Google searches). The following month, after the beginning of social distancing within the country, the search for this term has varied between approximately 40% and 100% until the present day. When analysing the same term in English, it was seen that interest in this search varied between 0% and 25% in January 2020, whereas, from February until May of this year, searches rose to between 25% and 100%, before decreasing in June after several countries had relaxed their isolation rules. Analysis of this data evidenced a considerable increase in the popularity of the term during this period, demonstrating a greater interest in the subject by Internet users. These variations seem to be linked to the closing and opening of trade and other activities around the world.
It is also interesting to mention the need to adapt to performing exercise at home. Consequently, it was noticed that interest in the sports equipment needed to practice physical exercise at home also increased, being demonstrated by searches on Google. The search for the term in Portuguese "equipamentos para atividade física" in the first two months of 2020 was close to zero in interest levels; by March interest had increased a lot, reaching 100 in April. From a global perspective, the term “equipment for physical activity”, researched in the English language showed a peak of interest (100 on the scale) in February and less interest by the beginning of June (0 on the scale). As the pandemic is not yet under control, and indeed with the prediction of new waves of contagions and deaths, it is very likely that people's habits will really change as a way of adapting to the new reality.
While recognising that people are in general resilient, it cannot be denied that psychological damage is evident, and it is often even difficult to understand and deal with the magnitude of the feelings that may arise. With this in mind, we repeated the research process on Google Trends with the term in Portuguese “depressão na quarentena”, and found little interest from the Brazilian population between January and early March (0 on the scale), probably due to the fact that social confinement did not exist in Brazil at that time. However, from March onwards, the search for the term grew a lot, reaching a peak in searches (100 on the scale) by the beginning of May. Similarly, when researching the term “quarantine depression” in English, there was little interest in the world population between the months of January until early March, with a subsequent exponential increase in searches for the term, reaching a peak in April, followed by a decrease until the month of June.
From Space to COVID-19: what can we learn? Astronauts need to know how to deal with confinement and, despite being submitted to various forms of training to adequately meet the challenges of space missions, psychological effects caused by confinement have already been reported in the literature. In the case of COVID-19, there was no preparation for this new reality, leaving us all trying to develop mechanisms to become more resilient to and cope better with the pandemic and all the events related to it. The Internet has become an ally, a service that provides information and shopping possibilities for people. The challenge now is to deal well with this volume of information, dividing it up in terms of what is true and what is applicable.
Authors: Prof Samira Bulcão Carvalho Domingues*, Prof Flávia Porto** and Prof Jonas Lírio Gurgel***
*Master's Degree student, Exercise and Sports Sciences/Institute of Physical Education & Sports/UERJ
When faced with the COVID-19 global pandemic, a reduction in the numbers of people circulating is essential. It’s important to know there are differences between social distancing, isolation, quarantine and total lockdown, however, all of these strategies have one goal in common, which is to contain the speed at which the virus spreads and limit the collapse of health systems. In extended social distancing, those establishments considered to be non-essential are closed to avoid the gathering together of people, while in selective social distancing, people belonging to at-risk groups, especially the elderly, are encouraged to stay at home. In isolation, sick people (with suspected or confirmed disease) are separated from the non-sick, whether in a domestic or hospital environment. Quarantine is carried out by those people who have come into contact with or are suspected of having come into contact with the virus and, even if not presenting symptoms, they are isolated from others. When none of these measures work, a total lockdown is declared, like a community quarantine.
Although essential, staying at home involves a radical change in the habits of a population, which may harm health in some way. Within the context of epidemiological normality, work, academic and leisure activities require a variety of effort that, taken together, maintain the minimum level of daily physical activity necessary for health, especially for sedentary individuals. An immediate interruption of these activities has a negative impact on the cardiorespiratory and muscle systems, responsible for maintaining functional capacity. This, in turn, is directly related to quality of life and the development of comorbidities.
Similarly, and at the same time, physically active individuals are compelled to abruptly interrupt their exercise routines during this period. The damage caused by this halt in training includes losses in muscle strength and mass, aerobic capacity, and joint flexibility and mobility, in addition to alterations in body composition. The change from a physically active to sedentary life can affect important variables for health maintenance, including blood pressure, blood glucose and cholesterol levels.
It is therefore advisable to use countermeasure strategies to combat the disuse. One of these is the practice of exercise - known to be the best non-drug health promotion strategy. The American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) has already taken a position on the importance of staying physically active during isolation. The weekly recommendation for asymptomatic individuals is 150 to 300 minutes of aerobic exercise, plus two strength training sessions. One could, for example, do 5 workouts a week of 30 to 60 minutes, adding muscle strengthening exercises to two of them. The intensity should be moderate, as very light stimuli may not promote benefits, while very high intensities are associated with impaired immunity.
Although many people doubt the feasibility and efficiency of home training, the literature shows that results similar to those obtained in traditional gyms can be achieved by using one's own bodyweight as a load. Routines can include exercises based on calisthenics, both in aerobic (stationary running, climbing stairs, jumping jacks) and strength (squats, push-ups, planks) training. Accessible materials can help: elastic bands, skipping ropes, and even household items to increase the workload (water bottles, backpacks with books, bags with groceries).
Authors: Prof Samira Bulcão Carvalho Domingues*, Prof Flávia Porto** and Prof Jonas Lírio Gurgel***
*Master's Degree student, Exercise and Sports Sciences/Institute of Physical Education & Sports/UERJ
Diante da pandemia mundial de COVID-19, diminuir a circulação das pessoas é algo essencial. É importante saber que existe diferença entre distanciamento, isolamento social, quarentena e bloqueio total, porém, todas essas estratégias têm o objetivo comum de conter a velocidade de propagação do vírus e evitar o colapso dos sistemas de saúde. No distanciamento social ampliado, estabelecimentos considerados não essenciais são fechados para evitar aglomerações, enquanto que, no distanciamento social seletivo, pessoas pertencentes a grupos de risco, em especial, idosos, são estimuladas a ficar em casa. Já no isolamento, pessoas doentes (com suspeita ou confirmação da doença) são separadas das não doentes, seja em ambiente doméstico ou hospitalar. A quarentena é realizada por pessoas que tiveram contato ou suspeito de contato com o vírus e, mesmo não apresentando sintomas, ficam isoladas das demais. Quando nenhuma dessas medidas funciona, finalmente, é decretado o bloqueio total, como uma quarentena comunitária.
Apesar de imprescindível, a permanência em casa implica em uma mudança radical nos hábitos da população, o que pode prejudicar, de alguma forma, a saúde. Em um contexto de normalidade epidemiológica, atividades laborais, acadêmicas e de lazer solicitam esforços variados que, somados, mantêm o nível mínimo de atividade física diária necessário para a saúde, especialmente de indivíduos sedentários. A interrupção imediata dessas atividades impacta negativamente os sistemas cardiorrespiratório e muscular, responsáveis pela manutenção da capacidade funcional. Esta, por sua vez, está diretamente relacionada à qualidade de vida e ao desenvolvimento de comorbidades.
Da mesma maneira, no momento, indivíduos fisicamente ativos precisaram interromper bruscamente suas rotinas de exercícios neste período. Os prejuízos do destreinamento incluem perdas sobre força e massa musculares, capacidade aeróbia, flexibilidade e mobilidade articular, além de alterações na composição corporal. A mudança de uma vida fisicamente ativa para o sedentarismo pode impactar variáveis importantes para a manutenção da saúde, entre elas, pressão arterial, glicose sanguínea e taxas de colesterol.
Assim, é oportuno lançar mão de estratégias de contramedida ao desuso. Uma delas é a prática de exercícios - sabidamente a melhor estratégia não-medicamentosa de promoção da saúde. O Colégio Americano de Medicina Esportiva (ACSM) já se posicionou quanto à importância de se manter fisicamente ativo durante o isolamento. A recomendação semanal, para indivíduos assintomáticos, é de 150 a 300 minutos de exercícios aeróbios, além de duas sessões de treinamento de força. Pode-se, por exemplo, realizar 5 treinos semanais de 30 a 60 minutos e, em dois deles, acrescentar exercícios de fortalecimento muscular. A intensidade deve ser moderada, pois estímulos muito leves podem não promover benefícios, e intensidades muito altas estão associadas a prejuízos à imunidade.
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