Authors: Mario Mollo & Thais Russomano
MM: Physiotherapy student | TR: Director, InnovaSpace | BOTH: Lifelong Space Enthusiasts!
Ever wondered what trees might look like if they grew on other celestial bodies?
Would a tree taken to grow on a planet smaller than ours and with less gravitational force, such as Mars where gravity is one-third that of Earth (hypogravity), have branches and leaves that point upwards, away from the soil?
On the other hand, what if we took a tree to Jupiter, the biggest planet in the Solar System, where the force of gravity is 3.5 times that of Earth (hypergravity)? On this gigantic planet would tree leaves and branches be pulled downwards, unable to defeat gravity, perhaps looking more like the image below?
Or let’s consider a different scenario in which a tree is already native to a planet that has gravity bigger than on Earth – growing from a seed it would adapt straight away to the gravitational force of the planet, and perhaps grow differently. Do you think it might grow with a trunk that is thicker, larger, stronger, like the tree below?
For the moment, however, until we can transport trees and plants to grow on other celestial bodies or perhaps even discover a planet where vegetation grows naturally, we will have to admire the trees that grow and are shaped by the gravitational force of our own planet Earth. These are the trees we have been lucky enough to grow up with, the usual ones that we are so accustomed to, the trees that we must take good care of and protect well, as they are things of beauty and so rare in our Solar System and beyond.
Author: Swapnil Singh
Undergraduate: Astronomy Research & Mechanical Engineering - Astrophysicist of the future!
The concept of time travel centres around the idea of movement between certain points in time, parallel to movement between different points in space. Yes, in theory at least, as general relativity does allow for a tunnel through space-time linking two distant points in time, which then form a circular time loop called a wormhole or Einstein-Rosen bridge.
A black hole with its intense gravitational field could potentially provide a fantastic means to travel through time by getting close enough to its Event Horizon without being swallowed up. In principle, by maintaining this “safe” distance you could travel centuries into the future relative to outside observer.
Light has a finite speed of 299,792,458 m/s. To travel any finite distance, it takes a finite amount of time. And hence, there is always a time lapse whenever light travels from any object to the observer's eyes.
When you look at yourselves in the mirror (assuming you are 20 cm away from the mirror): you are actually looking at how you looked 1.33 nano seconds earlier i.e., you are looking 1.33 nano seconds into the past.
For celestial objects, the distances are very large (in light years) and hence when we see the stars, we are actually seeing several years into the past.
The stars we see today in the night sky might have even died thousands of years ago.
Author: Thais Russomano
InnovaSpace Co-Founder & CEO; International Expert in Space Science as it relates to Humans
Thirteen billion years ago, a picture of deep space, when the Universe was formed.
Thirteen hundreds, precisely in 1341, Penshurst Place (Kent, UK) was built and started its own history.
Two very different ways to observe the past, and learn their lessons…
The James Webb Space Telescope (NASA) is currently overwhelming scientists and us all with spectacular pictures from deep space. Meanwhile, we humans who still have our feet firmly planted on Earth, continue to take our cosmic photos, which also have the power to mesmerise and inspire us. I took this shot of our natural satellite last night (11 July 22), and although there was the interference of some turbulence in the upper atmosphere, the beautiful Moon continued to embellish the night skies over Fagnano Castello, a town located in the province of Cosenza in the Calabria region of southern Italy.
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